With the advent of DTH (Direct to Home) satellite in late 80s, equipped with high transmission power, receiving domestic satellite channels became more attractive by requiring antenna diameters of only 60 centimeters (case Astra 1A, launched in 1988).
The culmination of the transition from analog signals to digital in the mid-90 further popularized the satellite dishes as a fun leisure option against the often too boring generalist channels.
Far from trying to describe the process with detailed completeness, discussed below a guide for first fun and also why not save on the budget of the installation of equipment that are fortunately increasingly easier for all pockets.
For antenna mounting a drill, a set of drills, wrenches (or adjustable wrench), pliers and vulcanizing tape (or, alternatively, duct tape), scissors, a screwdriver, a compass will be needed (since 5-6 € in sports shops) and a level.
The process of assembling the antenna will require the following materials:
First, it should be provided in a location , preferably in a garden, patio, balcony or terrace facing south and as close as possible to the TV or room where you plan to install the satellite receiver to minimize the laying of cable required and avoid signal loss and make the minimum number of bores through walls.
Depending on which plan will be subject (horizontal or vertical) antenna and the chosen location, you must use different types of media (usually arms bent U or L for walls, supports vertical foot for gardens and terraces or bars vertical to install the antenna in an elevated position).
The anchor bracket to the wall require different plugs and screws according to the material from which it is built, making sure it is tightly screwed to withstand wind and inclement weight + antenna support assembly itself.
We recommend using metal studs for concrete walls (not in brick walls) and fixings in brick walls, which is the most common case, and whose use also depend on the level of restraint (see above) and the diameter of antenna installed.
It is important that there are many obstacles in front of our antenna to prevent them from producing areas of shadow that will decrease their efficiency at reception, a problem accentuated the further away it is the satellite that is due more to lean the antenna line horizon.
When fixed obstacles exist a rule easy to calculate the distance required horizontal separation between it and the location of the antenna is the distance is 1.5 times the height of the obstacle, ie:
To assemble the dish, the best thing is to put the plate down and go following the steps indicated by the manufacturer to attach the arm of the antenna, at the end corresponding to the focal point, he placed LNB bracket .
In the case of the mounting wall , it is very convenient secure with at least 4 holes .
First, having chosen a wall facing south , is chosen the height to place the stand and is performed first hole in the upper left corner, the corresponding block is inserted and fit and tighten the screw a little.
Then making sure the support plate wall is perfectly level using the level , drill the remaining holes.
Place the remaining studs and tighten to the maximum the 4 screws using a wrench, socket wrench, drill with hexagonal head etc to ensure the installation upwind.
Finally, after finding the perfect perpendicularity of support from the ground (ie, that the support is not off the hook), hang the antenna on the support leaving some loose screws for lifting and turning.
Once estimated the meters of cable will be needed and made the cut with pliers, retires at each end of the wire about a centimeter deck and part of the mesh that covers the inner dielectric and insulation of so that part of the conductor (copper thickness center) is air, as shown below.
It is very important that neither the wire or metal cover of the outer mesh touching the center conductor, it will cause losses noise and / or receiver would report an error LNB short-circuit.
Once this is done, they insert the pressure F connectors, threading them until it protrudes a few millimeters copper conductor.
To avoid leaks of water and cold in the dipole and the ends of the mesh can be outdoors, it should wrap or vulcanizing tape for sealing the outer joint between the connector and the cable F., after which it will already ready to connect the satellite receiver with the LNB of the antenna.
Then we will proceed to a first set theory to save time at this stage, certainly the longest of the entire installation process.
A first step, not strictly necessary but desirable , is orienting the antenna to the exact south , making a reference signal with permanent marker on both the mast head and the rear anchor of the antenna, in anticipation of future changes location Antenna or redirecting it.
To have reliable indications on the direction, it is necessary to know two facts:
Azimut : reference to the North, indicated in degrees horizontal rotation angle of the antenna, in the sense clockwise necessary to orient it toward a specific satellite from a specific population.
Examples: North Azimuth (0 °), East (90), South (180).
In this case, by taking the South as reference , it will have to subtract 180 degrees azimuth to be obtained. If the angle difference is negative , we must turn the antenna to the left , and if not right.
Elevation : angle / antenna elevation to the vertical on the horizon, which can easily fit into the frame of the antenna.
Both data can easily be found through the azimuth application of Diesl (www.diesl.com/azimut).
In the following example , the data is displayed to guide an antenna from Barcelona to the position 19.2 ° East (satellites Astra 1KR, 1L, 1M and 1N), almost the most commonly demanded in Spain, where it is popular for passing through she both channels in Spanish and open as the pay packageCanal + Spain .
To do this, it has been clicked the interactive map of Barcelona and the position selected Astra , after which the application displays automaticallythe exact data of azimuth (154,8º) and elevation of the antenna (39,8º, to mark the frame as mentioned above).
If you also make typical characteristics of the signal and LNB (usually FEC 3/4 in coding and LNB of 0.2 dB noise figure section), the application is also able to indicate an approximate diameter antenna required for proper reception .
The adjustment in the antenna will be first on the shaft horizontally , and set the elevation in degrees setting interval of the frame, it is easiest to stand at the back of the antenna.
Besides placing the focus of the antenna and screw properly by the neck with the plastic bracket, it is important that it is rotated with the correct polarization angle.
In the following example , Guided by the azimuth application, it is observed that for the position Astra 19.2 ° East , pointed from Barcelona, the angle of rotation of the LNB is approximately perpendicular to the ground, ie, between 6 and 7 a clock, or with threaded cable connector pointing almost vertical.
A simple protractor greatly reduced cost school can be helpful to make this adjustment in practice.
To maximize the signal level after the first orientation and adjusting the LNB antenna, tune it agree with one of the following methods.
Use a field meter or SatFinder (for domestic use is not necessary to invest thousands of euros, just one single), which is connected at one end a cable to the LNB output and the other to the receiver, which will provide the voltage.
Although there are several more or less digital versions, operation is always similar:
With the receiver on and a desired satellite frequencies already selected, the regulating sensitivity to signal that the needle is in the middle of the scale (October 5).
Here they are made minor corrections of azimuth (horizontal axis) and elevation (vertical axis) until the acoustic signal becomes more acute and intense and the gauge to rise to 10 .
Directly display the data in the receiver to observe both the quantity and the quality of the (S and Q) signal.
A common mistake is to believe that the antenna is pointed correctly because the amount bar signal is full. In practice, this only indicates that the LNB is powered from the receiver via the antenna cable.
The aim with this method will therefore maximize the percentage of quality signal (in this, the second bar with Q , will also be filled in pale orange to deep orange as useful to achieve the threshold signal for stable tuning .
While navigating through the menus will be different in each receiver, the channel scan can usually parameterized by satellite frequency (transponder) specific, so just look for open channels, open and encrypted, etc.
In a few minutes you will have a complete list , after which agree sort , delete unwanted channels or if you want to create a channel list favorites .
Just be relax and collect the tools to enjoy comfortably of new television experiences.